HOMO SPECIES: A Closer Look to Homo Sapiens and our Ancestors

Over the past billion years, humans have roamed around the Earth to survive. A human’s life follows a cycle – they live and they die until a new generation takes over. According to natural science, human evolved from the family of great apes. Charles Darwin’s account of the origin of species pointed out that human species emerge from earlier species. However, these human species did not survive and became extinct.

Let us take a look back of the Homo species who are believed to have existed on Earth throughout the history:

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens are the ancestors of us, modern humans. Scientists found out fossils that support sapiens’ existence. The oldest fossil was discovered in Herto, Ethiopia. Homo sapiens have the culture of family. They hunt for food and eat together. They also discovered breeding plants and animals. Homo sapiens also started the concept of home.

Homo neanderthals

Neanderthals are extinct species of humans. They have the closest similarity with a modern human with 0.12% difference in DNA. They are believed to have existed 600,000 to 350,000 years ago. Because they are like us, they discovered tools for hunting. They also wore symbolic ornamentals. They also started the concept of burial of the dead.

Homo erectus

Homo erectus is believed to have lived throughout the Pleistocene from about 1.9 million years to 143,000 years ago. Scientists discovered that they originated in Africa and spread through China, India, Georgia, and Java, where its first fossil was found. They merely stood in the range of 4 ft. 9 inches to 6 ft. 1 inch. Their elongated arms and short arms helped them climb trees.

Homo floresiensis

Homo floresiensis was believed to have existed from 95,000 to 17,000 years ago. Its key fossils were found in Indonesia in 2003, thus, they are believed to have inhabited Indonesia before. They were very small in size with around 3.5 feet in height. They also have very small brains. The female head was 1/3 size of a current human brain. Their small body enabled them to survive in small islands.

Homo habilis

Homo habilis lived on Earth from 2.4 to 1.4 million years ago. They possessed ape-like features including long arms and moderately prognathic face. They have a larger brain case, but they have a smaller face and smaller teeth. Scientists debated if they should be classified as Homo, however, evidence showed they used stone tools for various purposes.

Homo rudolfensis

Scientists also debated the existence of Homo Rudolfensis. There is a lack of cranial fossils to support their existence. However, some scientists believed that they existed 1.9 million years ago. Accordingly, they have much longer faces than the rest of Homo species.

Homo Heidelbergensis

Homo Heidelbergensis is believed to have existed between 700,000 to 200,000 years ago in Africa. They had a larger brain case with a flatter face than modern humans. They were the first humans to have easily adapted to colder climates. Moreover, they built shelters for themselves. They have the ability to hunt large animals.