Discrimination against race is one of the most ancient forms, tracing back to the history of slavery. A certain minority suffers disadvantages of being in their racial group. Racism is still considered a huge problem, which according to scientists, will continue to be part of our culture. Well if you thought discrimination is only white versus black, think twice, because this type of discrimination is more than that. Measuring Racial Discrimination (2004) shows four types of racial discrimination:
Intentional, Explicit Discrimination
According to Gordon Allport (1954), a person with a negative behavior towards a person or a group of a certain “race” exhibits verbal antagonism, avoidance, segregation, physical attack, and extermination.
Racists are verbally antagonist in a sense that they express casual racial slurs and comments. This can create a clear form of hostility in schools, workplaces, and environment. They also tend to be avoidant in the presence of a particular racial group. They choose not to interact and associate themselves with people of different color. Thirdly, segregation is a common thing in which they exclude members of the minority group from the allocation of resources. They also engage in physical attacks, usually in forms of hate crimes. Lastly, extermination could be the worst in which they resort to mass killings of a racial or ethnic group.
Subtle, Unconscious, Automatic Discrimination
Prejudicial attitudes may not manifest in discriminatory behaviors, however, the persistence of these attitudes lead to unconscious and subtle forms of racial discrimination. Subtle racism is indirect, automatic, ambiguous and ambivalent. The subtle prejudice affects our attitudes and behaviors as our racially biased cognitive categories and associations may persist. Our expression of racism may go underground or not apparent, however, it continues to manifest in our cognitive, affective and behavioral responses. On the other hand, indirect prejudice leads the majority to blame the disadvantaged racial group. This is often exaggerated as in-group members portray that members of the minority group are worthy of avoidance and exclusion.
Statistical Discrimination and Profiling
In this situation, a racist person based his or her decisions towards a certain individual on the grounds of his or her overall beliefs of the group where the certain individual came from. In short, racists are biased of individual origins. For example, a firm will not hire a black male job applicant, because there are reports that most criminals are black people. The firm did not consider the applicant’s skills because he is from the black race.
The three discussed the behavior of a racist individual. Now, in this case, it discusses how a certain organization can be discriminatory to a certain racial group. Most organizations have established rules that have been practiced since the beginning of the group. These rules may be racism-driven, considering outstanding histories of racism in a nation. These rules are not easily reconstructed, although, they may appear quite neutral in the surface, they still have discriminatory effects to the certain group. One perfect example is in the area of housing. Even if there are laws to counter overt racism and explicit exclusionary, it is embedded in real estate agencies to advertise and promote housing choices based on a certain group, excluding the minority.